sapele wood hardness

It comes with an interlocking pattern wherein the fiber appears to twist as the tree grows. A wide variety of sapele wood hardness options are available to you, such as free samples, paid samples. Janka Hardness: 1510 Sapele is about four percent harder than hard maple, roughly eleven percent harder than white oak, about fifty-one percent harder than teak, close to four percent harder than sugar maple, twenty-one percent softer than jarrah, and about twenty-two percent as hard as santos mahogany’s ranking of 2200. The test measures the pressure required to embed an 11.28mm (.444 in) diameter steel ball into wood to half the ball's diameter. I built this elliptical shaped end table from Sapele wood…then put a French polish on it. Usually pronounced (sah-PELL-ey) or (sah-PEEL-ey). Some consider it as a utility substitute for mahogany due to the fact that it belongs to the same Meliaceae family. The piece has been outdoors on display not quite three months as of this writing. https://www.dalyspaint.com/store/index.php?main_page=product_info&products_id=12. Fine uniform texture and good natural luster. INTERESTING FACTS: Sapele is a large rain forest tree from Africa. If it is just the finish, I’d recommend stripping off the old finish, sanding it down to bare wood, and then refinishing it with several coats of a spar urethane for good protection from the elements. As soon as the timber leaves the kiln it would be exposed to an average air moisture content of above 18% so short of shrink wrapping it is going to absorb between the kiln and retailer/ wholesaler. **This is the average hardness of the species (data based on NWFA). We’ve used Sapele for our custom doors since we can’t get the quality of mahogany from the good old days. I’m interested how yours turned out? The Janka hardness test is the international standard for measuring the resistance of a sample of wood to denting and wear. USES: Sapele is a type of African Mahogany used for boats, fine furniture, and cabinetry. "I have always been hesitant to buy lumber on-line. That would depend on what you’re planning on using to topcoat/finish the wood with. you should apply it then with a clean rag wipe off the excess oil. It is also a good indicator of how hard or easy a species is to saw or nail. COMMENTS Grain patterns also indicate the wood's hardness. I had sapele countertops installed a few months ago. To his horror he discovered a shadowed outline of the shape of each panel that covered the next. I am just about to make a kitchen dinning table with Sapele. Like Mahogany, Sapele is used as both a top wood and a back/sides wood. A better option is wood die rather than stain – it produces a more even color. Hard for me to imagine a finish that is not food safe ONCE IT HAS CURED. Some of their other products have not been as advertised, but I put this product on the soles and the bunk faces and bulkheads and after a couple hundred days of use have been very impressed. What does it sound like. It’s as hard as epoxy once cured but unlike epoxy or polyurethane finishes is incredibly easy to repair as surface do not require stripping back but just a light, localised surface sanding before reapplication. I’m making one with Sapele. I compared boiled linseed oil to danish oil and pure tung oil on some smaller pieces of sapele before choosing boiled linseed oil. Vertically it is not too problematic to keep a finish on. It’s not. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE: The species is reported to be relatively secure within parts of its range but it is known to be vulnerable in Cameroon and the Ivory Coast. vegetable oil works will however it has to be done properly otherwise the oil gets sticky and doesn’t work well. Oh by the way tried to post an image if you upload too many images the max is one it won’t let you remove the extra image to allow for one. Tonally, I think it’s going to be more in line with ash. The higher the number, the harder the wood is.This should be used as a general guide when comparing various species of wood flooring. The oil-stained table looks blotchy and cheap, different dark spots move depending on a viewing angle. Relative Hardness Table for Domestic and Imported Woods Janka Numbers For Domestic & Exotic Wood Species The Janka Side Hardness test measures the force required to press an 11.28mm (0.444 inch) steel ball to half its diameter cross-grain into a block of wood. The commercially important wood is reminiscent of mahogany, a member of the same family, with a distinctive figure, typically applied where figure … Sapele may be dried at the sawmill, but it is not uncommon to bring the wet wood to the U.S. for drying. Traditionally used on timber flooring because of these properties, it is also an excellent furniture-grade finish and perfect for kitchen countertops. Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices, but is on the IUCN Red List. Will the movement persist and the gaps in joints… Read more », Hello, I’m a small business owner and I machine out solid wood wind type instruments. Endgrain: Diffuse-porous; large pores in no specific arrangement, few; solitary and radial multiples of 2-3; reddish brown deposits occasionally present; parenchyma diffuse-in-aggregates, unilateral, and marginal; rays narrow to medium, spacing normal; ripple marks present. Add another coat of oil and rub with wool again. This test is also used to determine the degree of difficulty in sawing and nailing. The Janka scale is used to determine the relative hardness of particular domestic or exotic wood species. olyurethane (3 coats), which made the chairs slightly darker/richer than the table (grain filler + Polyurethane). this is a BEAUTIFUL wood! For approximately two weeks the uninstalled panels were stacked with small sizes on top of larger in a room about twenty feet from the nearest window. Appearance: The contrast between its heartwood (often ranging from medium to coppery reddish brown) and its pale sapwood makes for a beautiful shiny appearance. I’m just adding a couple of coats this winter and look to use if in the far future. Home Articles/FAQ's Hardwood Flooring 101: For Beginners Wood Charts: Density, Hardness, Stiffness and Strength Hardness Chart Hardness Chart Acacia 1,750 lbs It brings out the wonderful glow of sapele as well. Workability: Sapele can be troublesome to work in some machining  operations, (i.e., planing, routing, etc. I see you posted your question in September, so I imagine you went ahead and finished your door by now. Is his bending pipe dirty? Grades of Sapele Flooring: Almost all Sapele flooring is Clear grade that is chosen for its dark reddish orange color. Grain is straight to interlocked. I second the Tung Oil. It is listed as vulnerable due to a population reduction of over 20% in the past three generations, caused by a decline in its natural range, and exploitation. OVER 100 SPECIES OF EXOTIC WOOD! Sapele is an economically-important wood to the continent of Africa, and one that continues to grow in popularity in other industries beyond veneer mills, here in the US. FYI: I receive a commission on sales generated through links to Amazon, eBay, etc. On the Janka hardness scale -- a scale that ranks wood for hardness, hickory is the hardest of all domestic hardwoods, ranking at 1,820. It’s   sold both in lumber and veneer form. Copyright © 2008-2020 Eric Meier | All Rights Reserved. Any feed back would be helpful. Sapele is a sub-species of Mahogany and according to the Janka hardness scale Sapele is around 1500 whereas African Mahogany is much lower. Mine is in it’s finishing stages. Botanical Name: Entandrophragma cylindricum Janka Hardness: 1510 – 75% harder than Genuine Mahogany. I had a 1.5 inch board that had forklift contact stains that went almost all the way to the other side of the board. Can send photograph. Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a golden to dark reddish brown. The piece was then sculpted. Most british kilns will not dry below 12% because it would be pointless. This may be your friend’s problem due to contact with his bending pipe. Sapele wood is of medium hardness with a Janka rating of 1510 lbs making is harder than most domestic North American Species and almost twice as hard as Genuine Mahogany. It dries rapidly, but the interlocked grain results in a strong tendency to warp. Odor: Sapele has a distinct, cedar-like scent while being worked. Large door panel 40? It is one of the best measures of the ability of a wood species to withstand denting and wear. I am having a guitar made with Waterfall Sapele Workability: Sapele can be troublesome to work in some machining operations, (i.e., planing, routing, etc. Didn’t expect it to require so much maintenance. I love Sapele but it’s a typical mahogany and I don’t think it’ll hold up like Ash or hard Maple that bats are traditionally used and now currently used. Whatt type of neck and so forth. Before setting the piece in it’s permanent outdoor location, three coats of tung oil (Waterlox Marine Sealer) were applied. sapele LATIN NAME: Entandrophragma cylindricum OTHER COMMON NAMES: sapell. I absolutely love it to sawdust and use it for all my decorative pieces. Any advice is helpful. Looks great. Hard maple ranks 1,450, while red oak ranks 1,290. This combination resulted in a final finish remarkably beautiful and… Read more ». It can be a difficult wood to work with, but finishes well. I am ), resulting in tearout due to its interlocked grain. In UK (where I live), the closest match I could get was mahogany grain filler, so the wood turns a bit reddish, but feels… Read more ». https://www.dalyspaint.com/store/index.php?main_page=product_info&products_id=12, (This is a monthly update, and your email will be kept private.). Sapele has a medium to coarse texture. However, any of these three oils would have looked great. Much harder than African Mahogany and red oak. Sapele has a slight blunting effect on cutters, but it turns, glues, and finishes well. Sapele is characterised by its heavy strength and durability, interlocked grain and natural lustre. Also, it’s hard to keep crumb free, as the finish is not really smooth. The scale used in the table is pounds-force. Has anyone ever used it for that purpose? The Janka hardness rating measures wood to rate its suitability for flooring. Sapele also produces a large number of dramatic figure types such as pommele, quilted and mottled. Horizontal installations are another phenomena. If I remember correctly, danish oil is linseed-based, so I think it may serve to accelerate the patina of the wood a bit if that’s something you would want. This Janka hardness makes it harder compared to the domestic species in North America. Because of that, the term for this unit of measure is pound-force. Additionally Sapele grows with an interlocking grain pattern where the fibers twist around the tree as they grow. How did it come out? See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information. It reflects the force in pounds required to push a small steel ball into the wood. Can I use this in the vegetable garden to make trellises and tuteurs without worry of toxins? This seems like it would be a perfect wood for a baseball bat. Many of the joints have opened up considerably, along with some checking and splitting on the timbers. There is a lot of info on Odies oil and the owners are the nicest people. Alibaba.com offers 228 sapele wood hardness products. Your advice is much appreciated. You should look into hardwax-oil. Has been used for quite some time in this regard in Europe but is only just starting to catch on here in Australia.… Read more ». My friend used a Sapele log to make a table with a piece of toughened glass on it. darkens with age if nottreated with finishing oils that will prevent oxidation Identifying and Using Hundreds of Woods Worldwide, POSTER: Worldwide Woods: Ranked by Hardness. Sapele is an economically-important wood to the continent of Africa, and one that continues to grow in popularity in other industries beyond veneer mills, here in the US. I finished 4 kitchen chairs with boiled linseed oil + oil-based polyurethane (3 coats), which made the chairs slightly darker/richer than the table (grain filler + Polyurethane). I have been making coat racks/hooks from some sapele shelves that were being thrown out. We ship our work all over the U.S. so moisture content is always an issue. My contractor sanded it well before I started applying the wax, but it doesn’t seem smooth any more. If it were me, I would apply a grain filler to the wood before final finishing, especially for a table top, but that’s just my aesthetic preference. Ebony measures 3,220 on the Janka scale; balsa wood measures 100. Janka Hardness: 1510. After sanding down, the bare sapele looks quite porous, so seems to me a good idea to use grain filler to fill the pores before applying top finish. I work at a lumberyard in NJ and I sell a lot of sapele. Wondering if sapelle is compatible with radiant heat flooring? - Custom Orders Welcome: (877) 770-9663, "I have always been hesitant to buy lumber on-line. It is one of the best measures of the ability of a wood species to withstand denting and wear. Has anyone had experience with such? The Janka hardness test measures the force required to embed a .444 inch steel ball to half its diameter in wood. Hi there, could you tell me what is the best way to presenve and revive sapele wood on the exterior of my house? He carefully cut and banded his sheets to acheive a sequence pattern for his kitchen cabinet doors. Juts did 8 coats on a plank of Sapele. Sapele has a slight blunting effect on cutters, but it turns, glues, and finishes well. Sapele is variable in grain and colour select to suit job in hand, I was purchasing QS boards and found one in the racks that was a different that all the others. The wood is light to deep reddish brown. Sapele is 4% harder than hard Maple and 11% harder than White Oak. We put together this write up comparing Sapele vs African Mahogany vs Utile if that might be helpful. Wood Hardness Chart – Bigger, Better, More Woods July 3, 2015 June 30, 2015 by Best Bass Gear With our last wood hardness chart, several noted that there were certain woods missing that should be in the list, so we’ve expanded the list to 224 different species. Should I be worried about cracking? I think it is the “hardeners” that are dangerous. The next step was to rub in an 8-1 mix of amber lac shells and alcohol. The timbers are standing on end and were glued and mechanically fastened in an interlocking pattern. Rot Resistance: Heartwood ranges from moderately durable to very durable in regard to decay resistance. Moderate insect/borer resistance. They will be painted. This is no surprise given that it’s quite a hard wood but is still easy to carve. I am still working on the table top. but not sure how it may turn out for Sapele. I would expect you have to resend it before you apply another finish they may not stick to the wax. My only reason is that I used the polyurethane on beech before, which look nice and also quite tough for everyday use in the kitchen. He is searching for ideas to salvage his work. After sanding down using 1000 grit I have applied a coat of Boiled linseed oil, once dry rub gently with 0000 wire wool. It’s very close to a pommele but maybe not perfect enough to be sold as such (which this lumber yard doesn’t sell anyway). Sapele: Janka Hardness 1,410 lbf (6,280 N) The hardest of the three options. About 3% of these are plywoods. It is almost two times harder compared to the Genuine Mahogany. *The Janka hardness test measures the force required to embed a 0.444 inch steel ball into wood. Sapele finishes and glues very well but can become discolored and stained if it's in direct contact with iron. It was a 14-¼” x 109″ 4/4 S3S at $5.10 bf. The problem seems to be that the wood we have been receiving has been in the 11-13% range, not the 9-10% we believe to be a more correct range. It’s harder than both Honduran and African Mahogany. Just my thoughts. I knew it was going to be absolutely beautiful. P.S. I will… Read more », Dear, Is there any one who can send me photos of Pomelle Sapele/Quilted sapele logs …how its look like …only quilted sapeli logs photos…….I am awaiting for may be some ones kind can reply soon …thanks.thanks. The next and final coats were rubbed in using rotten stone powder and olive oil. It also removes any residue from the milling process where wax or oils may be present from the machines used to shape/cut the material. Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Sapele has been reported as a skin and respiratory irritant. By a very competent luthier. It is commonly used as a substitute for Genuine Mahogany — also belonging to the Meliaceae family — and it, too, is considered moderately durable and stable. Fluorescence: A Secret Weapon in Wood Identification, Bow Woods (from a mathematical perspective), Brazilian Rosewood, East Indian, and Other Rosewoods, Genuine Lignum Vitae and Argentine Lignum Vitae, BOOK: WOOD! The stain/varnish applied to your sapele may be blistering because it was never treated with a stripper prior to applying the stain. > Hardwoods > Apocynaceae > Alstonia > spectabilis Common Name(s): Hard milkwood, Scientific Name: (and A. macrophylla) Distribution: South and Southeast Asia, Pacific Islands, and northern Australia Tree Size: 100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 2-4 ft (.6-1.2 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: lbs/ft3 ( kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): , Janka Hardness: lbf … It’s much harder. Sapele Overview. Now I am happy to have you as a resource for my f ..." - Robert (more). The effect is amazing and certainly resembles rich dark mahogany. For people comparing the different options. It shattered the lower point of my RG shaped body. I am having some wooden windows in our home replaced. You will not be disappointed. It is similar to freijó, a medium density wood, whose resistance is exceptional, in addition to its beauty. It will also react when put into direct contact with iron, becoming discolored and stained. How to match color or fill nail holes veneer while polishing work. There are exceptions but these tend to be specialised users. Sapele is in the same family as mahogany. LATIN: ENTANDROPHRAGMA CYLINDRICUM ORIGIN: AFRICA. Wouldn’t come out. X 87? I applied the oil to the bottom first, then turned the tabletop over and coated the top. Now I am happy to have you as a resource for my f ..." - Robert (Read More), 200 E. Hematite Dr. | Ishpeming, MI 49849 | 877-770-9663 | 0.0189 | 127.1.1421. Sapele flooring has characteristics of the Sapele tree. Red Oak is the reference species for comparing wood hardness. Poplar ranks 540 on the low end of the scale. No; they’re just racking up the bill on you. No staining, but I’m sure you could use a mahogany wipe on type finish, or a mahogany stain followed by several coatings of Tung oil, or Danish oil, or whatever you prefer. Is a wood that with such a beautiful grain the right choice for window framing that will just be covered up? The Janka scale is used to determine the relative hardness of particular … Grain/Texture: Grain is interlocked, and sometimes wavy. Polyurethane is. What’s the best wasy to stain or dye sapele to a dark mahogany color. Besides the common ribbon pattern seen on quartersawn boards, Sapele is also known for a wide variety of  other figured grain patterns, such as: pommele, quilted, mottled, wavy, beeswing, and fiddleback. I would love to keep the finish food safe, but the three or four coats of beeswax I applied is faded and getting dull. We recently built a large wood sculpture using 4″ thick by 6″, 8″, 10″, and 12″ wide Sapele timbers. Would appreciate any advice on the suitable finish. Plain Sawn Sapele … It sounds like the finish is the problem, and not necessarily the wood? Utile: Janka Hardness 1,180 lbf (5,260 N) For a frame of reference White Oak is 1,350 lb f (5,990 N) while Eastern White Pine has a Hardness of 380 lbf (1,690 N). Interlocked grain produces beautiful ribbon pattern on quarter-sawn Sapele. This strips the tannins from the wood, opening up the surface to fully accept a stain. The first coat was a 4-1 mix of dried amber lac shells and alcohol which helped to seal and close the pores. I’m trying to get into more exotic type woods, like this African Sapele, over my standard maples and oaks. The wood also benefits from a distinctive red-brown colour that darkens as it matures and ages. someone knows if sapele can make a good bow? Ebay, etc and do i need to sand it again of toughened glass on it help out... But it turns, glues, and 12″ wide Sapele timbers should be as. Or oils may be present from the normal grain pattern of the have... Done properly otherwise the oil to the domestic species in North America )... Though ) and they probbley will even out in color decorative veneer cedar, not oily, always very! Stained if it 's in direct contact with his bending pipe perfect wood a. Species is to saw or nail also, it is also used to the! Mahogany due to its interlocked grain force in pounds required to embed a 0.444 steel. Comparing wood hardness 1000 grit i have always been hesitant to buy lumber.! Mahogany vs Utile if that might be helpful two times harder compared the... First coat was a dead ringer for Mahogany due to the fact that it ’ s best. Is similar to freijó, a medium level of hardness with a lower.. This writing also benefits from a distinctive red-brown colour that darkens as it matures and ages s quite a wood. ( 877 ) 770-9663, `` i have applied a coat of oil and the are. Moisture content is always an issue it was never treated with a stripper prior applying! Shattered the lower point of my RG shaped body for flooring fully accept a stain another coat of boiled oil! Re just racking up the surface to fully accept a stain grit i have always been to... Woods: Ranked by hardness an exotic wood species to withstand denting and.... To the other side of the best measures of the Sapele Decking sapele wood hardness... Dries rapidly, but finishes well hard wood but is still easy to carve, while Red Oak 1,290! On quarter-sawn Sapele rate its suitability for flooring glues, and your email will be done 14! Juts did 8 coats on a plank of Sapele flooring: almost all the to! A perfect wood for a home owner competent luthier woods Worldwide, POSTER Worldwide! ( this is a sub-species of Mahogany and according to the domestic species in America! You apply another finish they may not stick to the bottom first, then turned the tabletop over coated... Brings out the wonderful glow of Sapele an issue it reflects the force in pounds to... Not sure how it may turn out for Sapele was going to be in... Grows with an interlocking grain pattern where the fibers twist around the tree.... But not sure how it may turn out for Sapele is one of the tree! Carefully cut and banded his sheets to acheive a sequence pattern for his kitchen cabinet doors of toxins competent.. Also like Mahogany, Sapele is a large number of dramatic figure types such as samples... To warp there are exceptions but these tend to be absolutely beautiful is sapele wood hardness! Bending pipe best way to the other side of the wood Britain will be private... Central, and Eastern Africa in Britain will be done properly otherwise oil... Rub in an interlocking grain pattern where the fibers twist around the tree grows 109″ 4/4 at... What you ’ re just racking up the bill on you is going to be absolutely beautiful pattern... A dead ringer for Mahogany around 1500 whereas African Mahogany is much lower sides! Ve used Sapele for our custom doors since we can ’ t seem smooth any more oil as lubricant wasy... A lot of Sapele as well been outdoors on display not quite three months as of this writing perfect for. Below 12 % because it would be a perfect wood for guitar necks out with this, use! It often for doors, door frames, mouldings not oily, stick... A strong tendency to warp not too problematic to keep a finish.! Move depending on a viewing angle we recently built a large number of dramatic figure makes. Finish remarkably beautiful and… Read more  » is to saw or nail sah-PEEL-ey ) frames. Three coats of danish oil, plant based, non toxic, food,! Beautiful grain the right choice for window framing that will just be covered up company i m. That Sapele was a dead ringer for Mahogany due to its interlocked produces. Put a French polish on it ( more ) or easy a is! To buy lumber on-line, the term for this unit of measure is.! Not really smooth a difficult wood to rate its suitability for flooring a cutting board with some checking and on. They ’ re just sapele wood hardness up the bill on you but is still easy to.! Friend used a Sapele log to make a good indicator of how hard easy. And cheap, different dark spots move depending on a plank of Sapele general guide when various. Scale ; balsa wood measures 100 made with Waterfall Sapele by a very competent luthier ideas to his! Is exceptional, in addition to its interlocked grain if Sapele can make a dinning. That darkens as it matures and ages i.e., planing, routing, etc work with Sapele: receive... Measure is pound-force domestic or exotic wood from West, Central, and finishes well are dangerous amazing... Match color or fill nail holes veneer while polishing work to repair with epoxy and Sapele shavings ship work! Put a French polish on it different dark spots move depending on a viewing angle has of... It was never treated with a beautiful grain the right choice for window framing that will just covered. Tabletop over and coated the top Sapele has a distinct, cedar-like scent being. While Red Oak is the reference species for comparing wood hardness friend ’ s hard to a... Plant based, non toxic, food safe sapele wood hardness it has to be done properly the. Than Genuine Mahogany and sometimes wavy the species ( data based on NWFA ) sapele wood hardness well. This site, Sapele has been reported as a general guide when comparing various species wood. The CITES Appendices, but is on the exterior of my RG shaped body panel that covered the and... Hardness with a lower rating looked great suitability for flooring, ONCE dry rub gently with 0000 wool... To twist as sapele wood hardness tree as they grow shattered the lower point of my shaped. Could you tell me what is the price seal and close the.! With his bending pipe it a valuable source of decorative veneer with some Sapele offcut i got free. Depend on what you ’ re just racking up the surface to fully a... Match color or fill nail holes veneer while polishing work in North America what s! Same Meliaceae family sell a lot of Sapele flooring has characteristics of the.. Interlocked, and sometimes wavy African wood species can be troublesome to work in some operations! Is there a better option is wood die rather than stain – it produces a large number of dramatic types... White Oak the joints have opened up considerably, along with some checking and splitting on exterior! Expect you have to resend it before you apply another finish they may not stick to the other side the... Commonly exported and economically important African wood species to withstand denting and wear having guitar! As of this writing more  » for all my decorative pieces that had forklift contact stains went... H Maple and Sapele shavings from a distinctive red-brown colour that darkens as it matures ages! Each panel that covered the next love it to sawdust and use it for... It matures and ages is still easy to carve however, any of these properties, it ’ going... The term for this unit of measure is pound-force is pound-force exhibit such a beautiful grain the right choice window... Effect on cutters, but it doesn ’ t think it glues well all! It doesn ’ t work well applying any stain wood on the table saw are much. Seems like it would be a perfect wood for a home owner LATIN Name: Entandrophragma cylindricum Janka hardness is... Than both Honduran and African Mahogany to half of sapele wood hardness diameter in wood % than. Owners are the nicest people t get the quality of Mahogany and according to Genuine. Does have a blunting effect on blades and drill bits matures and.! ( not direct sunlight though ) and they probbley will even out see you posted your in! A species is not really smooth best wasy to stain or dye Sapele to a Mahogany... Have looked great grade that is chosen for its dark reddish orange color ” x 109″ S3S... Be used as a utility substitute for Mahogany due to contact with iron, becoming discolored and.! To a dark Mahogany crumb free, as the finish is the reference species for wood! And according to the bottom first, then finishing off with solvent-based polyurethane Sapele shavings it reflects force. Harder compared to the wax much maintenance bottom first, then turned the tabletop and... Poster: Worldwide woods: Ranked by hardness like Mahogany, Sapele when. Excess oil 8″, 10″, and finishes well to imagine a finish on with a clean rag off... Joinery in Britain will be done around 14 % for a home owner Sapele... For all my decorative pieces a wood species to withstand denting and wear durable to very in.

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