viceroyalty of new spain

[108], Tlaxcala, the major ally of the Spanish against the Aztecs of Tenochtitlan, also became something of a backwater, but like Puebla it did not come under the control of Spanish encomenderos. These towns continued to be ruled by indigenous elites under the Spanish crown, with an indigenous governor and a town councils. Supplies of wool, water for fulling mills, and labor (free indigenous, incarcerated Indians, black slaves) were available. King Charles III introduced reforms in the organization of the viceroyalty in 1786, known as Bourbon reforms, which created the intendencias, which allowed to limit, in some way, the viceroy's attributions. The Bourbons created a standing army in New Spain, beginning in 1764, and strengthened defensive infrastructure, such as forts. [49][50], The crown sought reliable information about New Spain and dispatched José de Gálvez as Visitador General (inspector general), who observed conditions needing reform, starting in 1765, in order to strengthen crown control over the kingdom.[51]. Galvez's army engaged and defeated the British in battles fought at Manchac and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Natchez, Mississippi, Mobile, Alabama, and Pensacola, Florida. "The Chinos in New Spain" declares that "During the two and a half centuries of contact between the Philippines and the Viceroyalty of New Spain, a minimum of 40,000 to 60,000 Asian immigrants would set foot in the 'City of Kings,' while a figure double that amount (100,000) would be within the bounds of probability" (Slack 37). [105][106][107], Texcoco in the pre-conquest period was one of the three members of the Aztec Triple Alliance and the cultural center of the empire. A network of Spanish towns was established in this region of commercial agriculture, with Querétaro also becoming a center of textile production. Viceroyalty of New Spain (1794) 36 comments. [132] Although that period was once characterized as New Spain's "century of depression," for Yucatán this was certainly not the case, with sustained growth from the early seventeenth century to the end of the colonial period. See if your knowledge of names is nimble—or numb—in this quiz of states and cities. All provinces in Mexico region are owned by Spain or its non-tributary subject: The colonial nation that owns Mexico (852) will move its capital here. Viceroyalty of New Granada, in colonial Latin America, a Spanish viceroyalty that was first established in 1717, suppressed in 1723, and reestablished in 1739. Since the time of the Catholic Monarchs, central Iberia was governed through councils appointed by the monarch with particular jurisdictions. Viceroyalty of New Spain (1794) Close. Although mining was difficult and dangerous, the wages were good, which is what drew the indigenous labor.[45]. It was the seat of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, the Archdiocese of the Catholic Church, the Holy Office of the Inquisition, the merchants' guild (consulado), and home of the most elite families in the Kingdom of New Spain. Many tumbled with their cargo to their deaths. Central America was originally planned to be part of the Mexican Empire; but it seceded peacefully in 1823, forming the United Provinces of Central America under the Constitution of 1824. The villa of Campeche was the peninsula's port, the key gateway for the whole region. However important the Marquesado and the Dominican enterprises were, there were also other economic players in the region, including individual Spaniards as well as existing indigenous communities. The Viceroyalty of New Spain was also charged with governing Spain’s Caribbean possessions. The United States bought the territory from France in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. It was on this basis that the conquest, occupation, and government of the [Spanish] New World was achieved.[3]. The establishment of religious missions and military presidios on the northern frontier became the nucleus of Spanish settlement and the founding of Spanish towns. The final period is the maturation of these structures (1660–1750). The crown did not wish to have the main west coast port in private hands and an agreement was worked out with Cortés heir, Don Martín Cortés, to relinquish the Tehuantepec encomienda. The Medici collect the Americas. According to Manning and France (2006), "the Viceroyalty of New Granada was one of the four Viceroyalties which framed Spanish government in eighteenth-century Spanish America, alongside those of Peru, New Spain, and Rio de la Plata" (p. 114). [95], The foundation of the town of Puebla was a pragmatic social experiment to settle Spanish immigrants without encomiendas to pursue farming and industry. In 1787, Puebla became an intendancy as part of the new administrative structuring of the Bourbon Reforms. Generally Zapotec elites protected their communities from Spanish incursions and community cohesion remained strong as shown in members' performance of regular community service for social ends. In Bolivia, it was from the single rich mountain of Potosí; but in New Spain, there were two major mining sites, one in Zacatecas, the other in Guanajuato. Numerous churches and other buildings were constructed by native labor in the Spanish style, and cities were named after various saints or religious topics such as San Luis Potosí (after Saint Louis) and Vera Cruz (the True Cross). [5][6][7] At its greatest extent, the Spanish crown claimed on the mainland of the Americas much of North America south of Canada, that is: all of present-day Mexico and Central America except Panama; most of present-day United States west of the Mississippi River, plus the Floridas. Viceroyalty of New Spain (Spanish: Virreinato de Nueva España) was a Spanish Imperial territory and later a colonial governance in the New World north of the Isthmus of Panama. One region that retained strong Indian land holding was the southern fresh water area, with important suppliers of fresh produce to the capital. "Audiencia of Guatemala" in, four viceroyalties Spain created in the Americas, Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest, Carlos Francisco de Croix, 1st Marquess of Croix, Juan Vicente de Güemes, 2nd Count of Revillagigedo, Carlos Francisco de Croix, marqués de Croix, Commandancy General of the Provincias Internas, Economic Society of Friends of the Country, Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire, Revolution of Independence of the English colonies in North America, missions throughout the Baja California Peninsula, Historiography of Colonial Spanish America, List of governors in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, LANIC: Colección Juan Bautista Muñoz. [82] Many Spanish merchants preferred living in the pleasant highland town of Jalapa (1,500 m). New Spain: The Spanish crown would, in 1535, establish a Viceroyalty of New Spain with its seat in Mexico City. New Spain, formally called the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Spanish: Virreinato de Nueva España), was a viceroyalty of the Spanish colonial empire, comprising primarily territories in what was known then as 'América Septentrional' or North America. During the term of viceroy Don Luis de Velasco, marqués de Salinas the crown ended the long-running Chichimeca War by making peace with the semi-nomadic Chichimeca indigenous tribes of northern México in 1591. Established in 1535, it initially included all land north of the Isthmus of Panama under Spanish control. Bucareli was opposed to Gálvez's plan to implement the new administrative organization of intendancies, which he believed would burden areas with sparse population with excessive costs for the new bureaucracy.[52]. Its first viceroy was Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco, and the capital of the kingdom was Mexico City, established on the ancient Tenochtitlan. The specter of liberalism that could undermine the authority and autonomy of the Roman Catholic Church made the Church hierarchy in New Spain view independence in a different light. For example, after a period of experimentation in which an independent intendant was assigned to Mexico City, the office was thereafter given to the same person who simultaneously held the post of viceroy. Management by the Audiencia, which was expected to make executive decisions as a body, proved unwieldy. In one episode, the cities of Huatulco (Oaxaca) and Barra de Navidad in Jalisco Province of México were sacked. The crown created two new provincial governments from the former Las Californias in 1804; the southern peninsula became Baja California, and the ill-defined northern mainland frontier area became Alta California. No elite Spaniards settled there, but like many other Indian towns in the Valley of Mexico, it had an assortment of small-scale merchants, artisans, farmers and ranchers, and textile workshops (obrajes).[109]. At the local level there were over two hundred districts, in both Indian and Spanish areas, which were headed by either a corregidor (also known as an alcalde mayor) or a cabildo (town council), both of which had judicial and administrative powers. The development of Mexico City itself is extremely important to the development of New Spain as a whole. The administration In New Spain the high court was established in 1527, prior to the establishment of the viceroyalty. They had access to the trade to Guatemala. These diseases would not affect the Philippines in the same way because the diseases were already present in the country; Pre-Hispanic Filipinos had contact with other foreign nationalities before the arrival of the Spaniards. The period of colonization came to an end in 1819. ~Garcia de los Arcos, Forzados, 238. However, where labor was more abundant or market conditions depressed, estate owners paid lower wages. The Viceroyalty of New Spain, is the first Viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire. The United States obtained Spanish Florida in 1819 in the Adams–Onís Treaty. The new Bourbon kings did not split the Viceroyalty of New Spain into smaller administrative units as they did with the Viceroyalty of Peru, carving out the Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata and the Viceroyalty of New Granada, but New Spain was reorganized administratively and elite American-born Spanish men were passed over for high office. Although colonial population decline affected the indigenous in Tehuantepec, their communities remained important in the colonial era and remain distinctly Indian to the current era. ", Howard F. Cline, "The Relaciones Geográficas of Spain, New Spain, and the Spanish Indies: An Annotated Bibliography.". The crown sold public offices, with their purchasers expecting to quickly recoup the costs. Because the Roman Catholic Church had played such an important role in the Reconquista (Christian reconquest) of the Iberian peninsula from the Moors, the Church in essence became another arm of the Spanish government. It included what is now Mexico plus the current U.S. states of California, Nevada, Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, Oregon, Washington, Florida and parts of Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Kansas, Oklahoma, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana; the southwestern part of British Columbia of present-day Canada; the Captaincy General of Guatemala (which included the current countries of Guatemala, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the Mexican state of Chiapas); the Captaincy General of Cuba (current Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and Trinidad and Tobago); and the Captaincy General of the Philippines (including the Philippines, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Caroline Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, the Marshall Islands, and the short lived Spanish Formosa in modern-day northern Taiwan, as well as, for a century, the island of Tidore and the briefly occupied Sultanate of Ternate, both in modern-day Indonesia). Spaniards with any ambition or connections would be lured by the closeness of Mexico City, so that the Spanish presence was minimal and marginal. Hispaniola’s early colonial art, an introduction. In the economic sphere, unlike many other regions and ethnic groups in Mesoamerica, the Yucatec Maya did not have a pre-conquest network of regular markets to exchange different types of food and craft goods. Each author gives different estimations for the total population, ranging from 3,799,561 to 6,122,354[165][166] (more recent data suggests that the actual population of New Spain in 1810 was closer to 5 or 5.5 million individuals)[167] as well as the ethnic composition in the country although there isn't much variation, with Europeans ranging from 18% to 22% of New Spain's population, Mestizos ranging from 21% to 25%, Indians ranging from 51% to 61% and Africans being between 6,000 and 10,000. [98] Puebla's wheat production was the initial element of its prosperity, but it emerged as a manufacturing and commercial center, "serving as the inland port of Mexico's Atlantic trade. In Guatemala, Santo Domingo and Nueva Galicia, these officials were called presiding governors, since they were leading royal audiences. The crown also established a standing military, with the aim of defending its overseas territories. ~Europeans are included within the Mestizo category. The region was diverse, and outlying provinces were resentful for elites in capital of Antigua Guatemala, destroyed by an earthquake in 1773. One such act of piracy was led by Francis Drake in 1586, and another by Thomas Cavendish in 1587. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! As a result, the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, Charles V created the Council of the Indies[Note 1] in 1524 as the crown entity to oversee the crown's interests in the New World. [142] But the British held onto their territory in the eastern portion of the peninsula into the twentieth century. At its height, the viceroyalty of New Spain consisted of Mexico, much of Central America, parts of the West Indies, the southwestern and central United States, Florida, and the Philippin… This left only Cuba and Puerto Rico in the Spanish West Indies, and the Philippines in the Spanish East Indies as part of the Spanish Empire; until their loss to the United States in the Spanish–American War (1898). An American-born Spanish elite (criollos) accumulated land and built fortunes on wheat, sugar, and cattle, all of which were consumed within the region.[164]. [1][2] Although New Spain was a dependency of Castile, it was a kingdom not a colony, subject to the presiding monarch on the Iberian Peninsula. Later, in 1565, the newly conquered Philippines were placed under the jurisdiction of New Spain. The outpost at Nootka Sound, on Vancouver Island, was considered part of the province of California. Regardless of the possible imprecision related to the counting of Indigenous peoples living outside of the colonized areas, the effort that New Spain's authorities put on considering them as subjects is worth mentioning, as censuses made by other colonial or post-colonial countries did not consider American Indians to be citizens/subjects, as example the censuses made by the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata would only count the inhabitants of the colonized settlements. [126], In 1610, Pedro de Peralta, a later governor of the Province of New Mexico, established the settlement of Santa Fe near the southern end of the Sangre de Cristo mountain range. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). West of Mexico City the settlement of Valladolid (Michoacan) was founded (1529–41). Viceroyalty of New Spain synonyms, Viceroyalty of New Spain pronunciation, Viceroyalty of New Spain translation, English dictionary definition of Viceroyalty of New Spain. [76][77] Despite some improvements, the roads still made transit difficult, particularly for heavy military equipment. Under Spanish rule, the Zapotecs not only survived, but flourished, unlike the other two. In the late 18th century the Spanish land grant encouraged the settlement by individuals of large land parcels outside Mission and Pueblo boundaries, many of which became ranchos.[127]. [81], The Caribbean port of Veracruz was small, with its hot, pestilential climate not a draw for permanent settlers: its population never topped 10,000. Therefore, in 1535, King Charles V named Don Antonio de Mendoza as the first Viceroy of New Spain. Including the territory now comprising Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia, the new viceroyalty (established in 1776) controlled an area previously under the administration of the Viceroyalty of Peru. It was ruled by Spain from the 1500s under the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and flew the Cross of Burgundy, until Napoleon conquered Spain in 1809. Although the crown had ambitious plans for both the Toluca and Veracruz portions of the king's highway, actual improvements were limited to a localized network. The Crown saw the intendants as a check on these other officers. The Viceroyalty of New Spain was the name of the viceroy-ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in North America and its peripheries in Asia from 1535 to 1821. In Asia, the Vicer… ", "The Relaciónes Geográficas of the Spanish Indies, 1577–1648. The census is also known as the "Revillagigedo census" because its creation was ordered by the Count of the same name. Philadelphia, not New Spain, supplied Cuba with wheat. Ranching emerged as the dominant rural enterprise in most of Tehuantepec with a ranching boom in the period 1580–1640. New Spain was the name that the Spanish gave to the area that today is central and southern Mexico, and since the capital city of the Viceroyalty was in Mexico City, the name was also used for the viceroyalty. In the 1821 Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire, both Mexico and Central America declared their independence after three centuries of Spanish rule and formed the First Mexican Empire, although Central America quickly rejected the union. Similar "Friends of the Country" economic societies were established throughout the Spanish world, including Cuba and Guatemala. They were accompanied by maps of the area discussed, many of which were drawn by indigenous artists. In the Bajío estate owners were evicting tenants in favor of renters better able to pay more for land, there was a disruption of previous patterns of mutual benefit between estate owners and renters. [85], European diseases immediately affected the multiethnic Indian populations in the Veracruz area and for that reason Spaniards imported black slaves as either an alternative to indigenous labor or its complete replacement in the event of a repetition of the Caribbean die-off. These hopes ended when Spain was pressured into signing Pinckney's Treaty in 1795. Once missions and protective presidios were established in an area, large land grants encouraged settlement and establishment of California ranchos. The Chichimeca war lasted over fifty years, 1550–1606, between the Spanish and various indigenous groups of northern New Spain, particularly in silver mining regions and the transportation trunk lines. From 1687, Father Eusebio Francisco Kino, with funding from the Marqués de Villapuente, founded over twenty missions in the Sonoran Desert (in present-day Sonora and Arizona). At first, gold was the most relevant mineral, but later the importance of this began to decline, giving way to silver. Upon his arrival, Viceroy Don Antonio de Mendoza vigorously took to the duties entrusted to him by the King and encouraged the exploration of Spain's new mainland territories. thesis, 2014), appendix 3. Miranda later ascribed this action on the part of Galvez to jealousy of Cajigal's success. [136] The largest population in the province was indigenous Maya, who lived in their communities, but which were in contact with the Hispanic sphere via labor demands and commerce.[137]. Therefore, the Viceroyalty's former territories included what is now the countries of Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Belize, Costa Rica; the United States states and territories of California, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Puerto Rico, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Florida; a portion of the Canadian province of British Columbia; the Caribbean nations of Cuba, the Dominican Republic and some other parts of the island of Hispaniola to the West, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago; the Asia-Pacific nations of the Philippine Islands, Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Palau and Caroline Islands, as well as during a century the island of Tidore in Indonesia. The region farther north of the main mining zones attracted few Spanish settlers. Audiencia districts further incorporated the older, smaller divisions known as governorates (gobernaciones, roughly equivalent to provinces), which had been originally established by conquistador-governors known as adelantados. Land owners lent workers money, which could be seen as a perpetual indebtedness, but it can be seen not as coercing Indians to stay but a way estate owners sweetened their terms of employment, beyond their basic wage labor. Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, Spanish Virreinato del Río de la Plata, the final of the four viceroyalties that Spain created during its colonization of Central and South America. Shop for viceroyalty of new spain art from the world's greatest living artists. Negotiations were unsuccessful, and a battle ensued; the Spanish were badly defeated, with only thirteen managing to return to New Mexico. [36] Due to the missionary nature of the Philippine colony, unlike in Mexico where most immigrants were of a civilian nature, most settlers in the Philippines were either: soldiers, merchants or clergy and were overwhelmingly male. [160], With the growth of a sufficient Spanish population and the crown's desire to better govern the area, it established the Captaincy General of Guatemala, which had primary jurisdiction over what are now Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. which were products which can merely be grown and manufactured whereas American silver was finite. (The Viceroyalty o Peru wis creatit in 1542 followin the Spaingie conquest o the Inca Empire. Its capital was Mexico City, formerly Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec Empire. [30] Since the Philippines was at the center of a crescent from Japan to Indonesia, it alternated into periods of extreme wealth congregating to the location,[31] to periods where it was the arena of constant warfare waged between it and the surrounding nation(s). [38] Unfortunately, the silver mined through the cost of irreplaceable lives and being a precious metal, meaning a finite resource, barely made it to the starving or dying Spanish, Mexican, Peruvian and Filipino soldiers who were stationed in Presidios across the archipelago struggling against constant invasions while it was sought after by Chinese, Indian, Arab and Malay merchants in Manila who traded with the Latinos for their precious metal in exchange for Silks, Spices, Pearls and Aromatics, etc. [9] The indigenous societies of Mesoamerica brought under Spanish control were of unprecedented complexity and wealth from what they had encountered in the Caribbean. In an effort to exclude Britain and Russia from the eastern Pacific, King Charles III of Spain sent forth from Mexico a number of expeditions to the Pacific Northwest between 1774 and 1793. Its location on the main route between the viceregal capital and the port of Veracruz, in a fertile basin with a dense indigenous population, largely not held in encomienda, made Puebla a destination for many later arriving Spaniards. A key example is Xochimilco. In the Philippines Manila near the South China Sea was the main port. Cabrillo sailed far up the coast, becoming the first European to see present day California, United States. The administration The construction was done despite protests from some Indian villages when the infrastructure improvements, which sometimes included rerouting the road through communal lands. The major action in the War of Jenkins' Ear was a major amphibious attack launched by the British under Admiral Edward Vernon in March 1741 against Cartagena de Indias, one of Spain's major gold-trading ports in the Caribbean (today Colombia). New Spain was the name that the Spanish gave to the area that today is central and southern Mexico, and since the capital city of the Viceroyalty was in Mexico City, the name was also used for the viceroyalty. Orizaba varied considerably in elevation from 800 metres (2,600 ft) to 5,700 metres (18,700 ft) (the summit of the Citlaltepetl volcano), but "most of the inhabited part is temperate. Native-born descendants of the resident Spanish-heritage rancho grantees, soldiers, servants, merchants, craftsmen and others became the Californios. Moreover, efforts were made to keep the Amerindian cultural aspects that did not violate the Catholic traditions. They included Nueva Vizcaya, Nuevo Santander, Sonora y Sinaloa, Las Californias, Coahuila y Tejas (Coahuila and Texas), and Nuevo México. New Spain was the name that the Spanish gave to the area that today is central and southern Mexico, and since the capital city of the Viceroyalty was in Mexico City, the name was also used for the viceroyalty. Collective labor cultivated the confraternities' lands, which included raising the traditional maize, beans, and cotton. The Viceroyalty of New Spain was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas. More than a century later, Europeans finally took an interest in establishing colonies in North America. With broad powers over tax collection and the public treasury and with a mandate to help foster economic growth over their districts, intendants encroached on the traditional powers of viceroys, governors and local officials, such as the corregidores, which were phased out as intendancies were established. Therefore, at the start of the 17th century, continental New Spain was a depopulated country with abandoned cities and maize fields. Mercene, Floro L. Manila Men in the New World: Filipino Migration to Mexico and the Americas from the Sixteenth Century. So then, the ships that set sail from Veracruz were generally loaded with merchandise from the East Indies originating from the commercial centers of the Philippines, plus the precious metals and natural resources of Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. Kingdom of the Spanish Empire (1535–1821), Maximum extent of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, with the addition of, Viceroyalty of New Spain and its relationship to the crown, Territorial extent of the overseas Spanish Empire, Founding Spanish cities, early sixteenth century, Expansion to the Philippine Islands and the Manila trade. The Viceroyalty of New Spain united many regions and provinces of the Spanish Empire throughout half a world. The more sparsely populated northern Bajío tended to pay higher wages than the southern Bajío, which was increasingly integrated in the economy of central Mexico. Biofile Southwest – a biographical listing of nearly 20,000 persons living in northern New Spain. Omissions? That treaty also ceded Spanish Florida to the United States. For a brief period (1722–76) the town of Jalapa became even more important than Veracruz, after it was granted the right to hold the royal trade fair for New Spain, serving as the entrepot for goods from Asia via Manila Galleon through the port of Acapulco and European goods via the flota (convoy) from the Spanish port of Cádiz. During the "golden century" from its founding in 1531 until the early 1600s, Puebla's agricultural sector flourished, with small-scale Spanish farmers plowing the land for the first time, planting wheat and vaulting Puebla to importance as New Spain's breadbasket, a role assumed by the Bajío (including Querétaro) in the seventeenth century, and Guadalajara in the eighteenth. By: Santiago Pérez Román 8A #14 This Happen in 1542–1824 The Viceroyalty was a local, political, social and administrative institution created by The Spanish Monarchy in the XV century for ruling in its territorial overseas territories. The most important was the Marquisate of the Valley of Oaxaca, property of Hernán Cortés and his descendants that included a set of vast territories where marquises had civil and criminal jurisdiction, and the right to grant land, water and forests and within which were their main possessions (cattle ranches, agricultural work, sugar mills, fulling houses and shipyards). Since Tehuantepec experienced significant indigenous population loss in the sixteenth century conforming to the general pattern, ranching made possible for Spaniards to thrive in Tehuantepec because ranching was not dependent on significant amounts of indigenous labor. From the beginning of the 19th century, the kingdom fell into crisis, aggravated by the Peninsular War, and its direct consequence in the kingdom, the political crisis in Mexico in 1808, which ended with the government of Viceroy José de Iturrigaray and, later, gave rise to the Conspiracy of Valladolid and the Conspiracy of Querétaro. [1][2][3][4] Its capital was Mexico City, formerly Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec Empire. Many clerics, such as Bartolomé de las Casas, also tried to protect the natives from de facto and actual enslavement to the settlers, and obtained from the Crown decrees and promises to protect native Mesoamericans, most notably the New Laws. In 1568, Bernal Díaz del Castillo finished La Historia Verdadera de la Conquista de la Nueva España. It wis ruled bi a vicery in Mexico Ceety who govrened the various territories o New Spain on behauf o the Keeng o Spain. But confraternities also later pursued cattle ranching, as well as mule and horse breeding, depending on the local situation. The Mexicans who came with Legázpi and aboard succeeding vessels had blended with the local residents so well that their country of origin had been erased from memory. Men, women, and even children smoked, something commented on by foreign travelers and depicted in eighteenth-century casta paintings. For over three centuries the Spanish Navy escorted the galleon convoys that sailed around the world. New Spain was the name that the Spanish gave to the area that today is central and southern Mexico, and since the capital city of the Viceroyalty was in Mexico City, the name was also used for the viceroyalty.

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